This paper argues that the ongoing transition towards renewable energy has significant implications beyond environmental impacts. The transition will deeply influence economic, political, and geopolitical relations between states.
Discussion Papers present an arguable opinion about an issue – typically that of the author. The goal of the discussion paper is to develop ideas and argue for the author’s vantage point on the subject.
Rising violence in northern Mozambique is posing a dangerous risk to the stability of the region.
This discussion paper examines the strategic culture and the elite structure of the Russian Federation as determining internal dynamics that have contributed to the shifts in Russia’s foreign policy.
This discussion paper aims to explore Africa’s gold conflict and outlines the challenges to its governance and development.
This paper argues that Israel’s proposed annexation of the occupied West Bank has changed the dynamics for all the sides.
This paper first introduces a short discussion of general trends affecting emerging economies, which have emerged during the Covid-19 crisis.
This discussion paper suggests that in order to understand the long-term implication of the pandemic in Central Asia, it is imperative to look at broader underlying structural problems of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
This paper will discuss the implications of great power competition in the Western Balkans.
This paper argues that the Covid-19 crisis will accelerate the major policy transformation already underway in developed economies towards a Keynesian framework.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the economic impact of Covid-19 on the EU and to discuss the recovery fund proposal that is expected to assist the member countries to overcome the challenges.
This paper looks into the first months of Kais Saied's presidency in Tunisia, examining the major crises that he has faced since taking office.
This paper examines the humanitarian aspects of the Bosnian War and the role of the international community both during and after the end of the war.
As populism continues to rise around the world, the appeal of authoritarianism has increased, creating a more receptive audience for Chinese and Russian soft power.
This discussion paper suggests that in order to understand the drivers of Russian behaviour in the global arena, it is imperative to look at broader underlying trends of the Russian Orthodox Church’s influence that are increasingly noticeable beyond the realm of domestic policies.
This paper concludes that the deep transformations caused by the Covid-19 crisis provide developing countries like Turkey with more space and flexibility for policymaking. This enables Turkey to take bold steps in realising its ambitions.
Although Iran's armament is restricted by international sanctions and arms embargoes, the country has still managed to develop its military capabilities to the extent that has raised concerns regionally.
This paper suggests that understanding China’s broad strategy, the reasons for rising Sinophobia, and Beijing’s capabilities, are of critical importance for projecting the geopolitical future of the region.
This paper will discuss the roots of the increasing partnership between Russia and China and its future prospects.
This paper critically discusses the rescue packages introduced by governments to counteract the economic consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic and explore the potential pathways governments can take in the near future in order to trigger sustainable and inclusive recovery.
This paper analyses whether the UK is ready for post-lockdown and argues that there are several challenges to both lifting as well as easing the lockdown.
This discussion paper will examine the background of a new type of arms race and analyse the Artificial Intelligence armament strategies of the US and China.
In light of the renewed discussions regarding potential Palestinian elections, this paper examines the reasons behind the division between Fatah and Hamas.
This discussion paper explores the mercenary nature of the Sudanese paramilitary groups’ in Libya.
This paper highlights the key phases of its transformation and provides an analysis on how the military regimes in Egypt monopolised power across the Egyptian economy for political gain.
This discussion paper analyses the historical background of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh as well as Russian involvement in the context of the latest SU-30SM aircraft deliveries to Armenia.
This discussion paper discusses the chronological development of Turkey’s indigenous defence industry and highlights the turning points, stimuli, and outcomes of these developments.
This discussion paper examines the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic in India and how the lack of testing facilities presents a larger risk in densely populated poor areas of the country.
This paper aims to discuss the roots of the crises of liberal order and its future. The paper will present an analysis of the concept of ‘world order’ and why we need it, together with the question of who establishes and maintains it.
This paper argues that the pandemic may lead to a major paradigm shift in economic thinking. In times of crisis, governments necessarily claim more control and responsibility over the socio-economic order. Residuals of such government activism are likely to remain as will the impact of the pandemic on the economy.
This paper argues that despite the heightened tensions resulting from escalation in Idlib, Ankara and Moscow will continue their fragile relationship and avoid any direct military encounter. However, they are likely to approach the relationship with more skepticism in the near future.
This paper provides a short introduction to the heated debate over the economics of climate change. It discusses the main economic trends in the modern age which contributed to the emergence of an environmental crisis
This discussion paper focusses on the Idlib Crisis, with particular emphasis on the plight of refugees and the internally displaced.
This Discussion Paper highlights how the ideology of Hindutva has gained an increased foothold in India under Prime Minister Modi’s tenure and examines its spread via the extensive use of new media.
This discussion paper assesses the inherent uncertainty of the global natural gas industry, the problematic and seemingly outdated logic of ‘energy dependence’, as well as the spirit in which the recent developments in the Eastern Mediterranean have been used for shortsighted geopolitical gains and a particular vision of ‘peace’. This discussion paper argues that the issue of natural gas is a symptom of the Cyprus Problem, and suggests that attention should be diverted back to the peace process and the compromises necessary for a sustainable solution.
In developed countries, people from different social backgrounds and of diverse ideological profiles are questioning the benefits of neo-liberal globalisation, and challenging the globalist policy framework because of increased inequality, stagnant wage growth, and financial insecurity.
As the completion of the upstream Nile dam project nears and with a solution not yet, there are fears the deadlock could lead to a water war between Egypt and Ethiopia, threatening security and stability in the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea region. This Discussion Paper provides a comprehensive overview of the water discord and links it to legacy of colonial rule.
This paper discusses the reasons behind Tunisians disillusionment with the existing political class and their quest for an alternative, which ultimately led to the election of a political outsider- Kais Saied - as the country’s new president.
This paper seeks to address the reasons why the world economy may be headed towards a synchronised recession in the near future and why governments and central banks, particularly in developed countries, are not ready for it.
This discussion paper aims to analyse the positions of both Greece and Turkey, as well as the Greek-Cypriot Administration, on the maritime delimitation issue by examining international agreements, current natural resource exploitation practices and historic case studies from international courts.
This discussion paper aims to analyse the limitations of Muhammed bin Salman’s reforms by historically examining the modernisation process in Saudi Arabia and the potential trajectories of the current project of transformation.
This discussion paper explores the role of international actors in the future of the Serbia-Kosovo relations and whether or not normalisation is possible.
This paper discusses the ongoing trade war between China and the US, the economic and political dynamics which led to this confrontation, and the respective positions of the two countries.
This paper focuses on how middle-income countries can successfully transform their economies to developed status, and includes opposing views about the role of government in overcoming the middle-income trap and some of the notable success stories from East Asia.
Marking the 74th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, this discussion paper explores whether the strategy of naval blockade and conventional bombing of Japanese cities could have been used by the US as an alternative way to force Japan to surrender. It analyses Japan’s economy in the pre-War period, the role of the zaibatsu during the war, and the appearance of atomic bombs on the stage of history.
This paper aims to analyse the national armies' interventions in the Arab World's political arena with particular emphasis on the cases of Algeria and Sudan.
This paper discusses the economic theory and empirical evidence behind immigration being economically beneficial to the recipient economies as opposed to the narratives dominating the political discourse and media representations around the world
Today, Libya is fragmented and polarized, mired in instability and insecurity. As a result, Libya is lacking a unified, representative and legitimate government able to exercise authority throughout the country and hold a monopoly over the use of force.
The recent increase of foreign involvement in the Horn of Africa has revived the age-old drive of global and regional powers to dominate the Horn of African countries in order to safeguard security and commercial interests alike.
As the violence committed by Myanmar’s army against the Rohingya and the rise of Boko Haram in Nigeria hit international headlines, distinct features of Gender- Based Violence against women in these conflict zones cannot be omitted.
Russia and China are the two largest and the most prominent powers in Asia in terms of their size, population, and military strength.
Venezuela has seen steady migration out of the country over the past eight years. This paper seeks to explore this exodus from Venezuela.
After the end of the Cold War, globalisation brought interdependence in international relations due to various developments
In the past two decades, Turkey has broadened its diplomatic horizons and improved its relations with Middle Eastern countries.
Contextualising the political and economic crisis in Venezuela is necessary in exploring the various root causes and perspectives of the crisis.
Western economies need a structural transformation in the way established economic order is functioning
The year 2013 was a significant date for Pakistan. The democratic transition, which took place then, led the country away from military rule.
This paper investigates what a potential BRICS membership might economically mean for Turkey in the light of the recent crisis in Turkey-USA relations. It concludes that even though Turkey may benefit a lot from substantial economic ties with the BRICS, it is an unlikely substitute for Turkey’s well-established relations with the West. Turkey’s link with the BRICS should not be about replacing its ties with the West but further strengthening them by improving Turkey’s power and importance in the global governance via alternative alliances.
Recently, there has been an acknowledgement that the economic primacy of manufacturing has been shrinking in line with the emergence of the so-called ‘knowledge economy.'
Israel gave migrants the following ultimatum: to leave Israel voluntarily by April 1, 2018 or face indefinite imprisonment with eventual forced expulsion. Although the April 1 deadline - which Israel’s Supreme Court suspended on March 15 - has passed and other efforts to resolve the issue yielded no results, the controversial plan continues to be examined, leaving many African refugees in fear of imminent deportation or imprisonment.
The effects of China’s continuous economic growth and its integration to the global economy has been felt at the global, regional, and state level. This discussion paper analyses some of the positive and negative impacts that China’s economic growth and global economic integration has had in Latin America in terms of trade, foreign direct investment, and in third markets.
In the midst of a political outbreak, coalition government in Israel is facing a challenge and cards are being reshuffled in a way that could change the whole face of the Israeli government. One of the main tenets of Israel’s parliamentary politics is its coalitional patterns which is an apparent reflection of the dividedness of the Israeli society. Rifts between the religious and the secular sections of the Israeli society, as well as those between Ashkenazi and Mizrahi Jews are shaping factors in Israeli politics. The secular-religious rift in the Israeli society and politics has recently been an important factor
The ‘Qatar-GCC Crisis’ is now 9 months old, and has spread to Horn of Africa making it a hotspot for rivalry. Initially, two traditional pro-Saudi countries in the region, Sudan and Somalia, have preferred to stay neutral in the diplomatic spat and urged dialogue. This report argues that Qatar’s diplomatic presence in the region, especially in Sudan and Somalia, contributed to their neutral stance. It also contends that Turkey’s engagements in both these countries and its position in the Qatar-Gulf spat influenced their position.